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(250) Theories of Transmigration of Souls and Resurrection

19 May
(250) Theories of Transmigration of Souls and Resurrection

I had not assured, but simply said in my earlier Article “Soul – A brief study” as “Where the soul goes after leaving the body is not our subject here and if God wishes, we may perhaps discuss it separately later on.” Today, I am determined to put my ideas in brief just as the part of the discussion and not at all any strong views either in favor or opposition of this or that school of thought on the most controversial subject titled here-above.

Further, I would like to clarify also that this essay is subjected on spirituality and it will go as a chapter to my proposed E-book titled “The Primer of Spirituality”. The word ‘Primer’ indicates that the contents of all these essays are intended to be in introductory and primary level and hence I’ll not go deep into the subject. With my accepted limitation, it would be somewhat hard for me to minimize the content and that also not at the cost avoiding or ignoring any fundamental points of the subject. But, I don’t bother as with the grace of God, I would be able to manage the same.

People are unanimous on one point that body is the house of the soul and when it falls down, the soul leaves it at once. But the difference of opinion starts from here that, after leaving the present body, where the soul goes. People are divided mainly into two groups as believing in reincarnation and resurrection. People believing in resurrection (mainly Christians and Muslims) are of the opinion that on the Day of Judgment (Kayamat) the dead will be raised as living from the graves. Christians believe that the soul remains in grave along with corpse till the Day of Judgment. Muslim belief is slight different from Christianity. According to them, the soul remains in Barzakh (Literally meaning ‘Barrier’) i.e. the period between Death and the Day of Resurrection. They will be given justice and as per the theory of reward and punishment, some will be awarded heaven for their good deeds and some hell for their evil deeds.

Similarly, according to the believers in reincarnation or transmigration of soul (mainly followers of oriental religions such as Hinduism), the soul or spirit, after leaving the former body, comes back to life in a newborn body. They believe in principle or theory of Karma. Both the schools are unanimous in ‘Reap as you sow’ theory; but their harvests are different; such as heaven and hell or rebirth in superior or inferior Yoni (form of being or existence).

Before to proceed on, let me clear that I am going to discuss the subject keeping into my mind three points : – (1) Whether the theory of ‘Reward and Punishment’ is justified in both reincarnation and resurrection situations. (2) Whether the purpose of prime goals of Judicial (Justice) system is maintained in this heavenly court of the Creator of the Worlds as in our worldly courts; and (3) Whether there is repetition or duplication of Reward and Punishment in any above mentioned theory. Further to clarify, my arguments in pros and cons of both the schools of thought will be in logical sequence based on intellectual reasoning and genuine as well as standard hypothesis.

People who believe that the soul is eternal and self existent say that the souls are transmigrated from body to body according to the Karmas (doings of past life) for ever until the soul is mingled with the God (Super Soul) which is called the Liberation (Moksha). According to them. if a man is virtuous, he will get reward of taking birth as a King or Brahmin in the next life.

By the way, let me tell that some condemn such theory under the argument that the First Man i.e. Manu, the Hindu law-giver has encouraged the caste system and has made injustice to Kshudras and has shown special favor for the Brahmins with partiality. Obviously, this theory was invented to justify the caste system which was existing in those days.

Now let us come to the main stream of our discussion. They people believe in the same way that if he was a thief, he would re-appear as a monkey or a mouse in his next life. Further to say, if he was a murderer, he might become a tiger, and so on.

The reason behind this theory is that they people accept the need of reward and punishment respectively for good and evil deeds of that particular life as in the case of believers in resurrection. Now let us see according to my above Point No. 2 whether all requirements of reward and punishment are maintained properly by this theory. We take first the punishment on the anvil of our discussion whether it is justified. As in our worldly courts, the punishment would be justified in light of the following three reasons:-

( 1 ) To satisfy the victim of crime.

( 2 ) To help the wrong-doer to reform and become a useful member of the society.

( 3 ) To make the wrong-doer an example for others to prevent them from doing such crimes.

Now, let us clarify the above with an example of our worldly courts. Suppose that if anybody has murdered an innocent person and the court passes the judgment against the criminal to be executed, the two of the above three benefits would be obtained. The second benefit of self-reformation is absent here. The first is partly obtained in the sense that the relatives of the deceased will be satisfied with that punishment and the third would be fully obtained in such a way that the potential murderers would learn the lesson that the murder of any innocent does not pay and one has to give life for life.

My above example of worldly courts is now compared and associated with the Divine System of Judgment by transferring a soul from one body to another. Nobody knows why he has been given a human body as a result of what good deeds done and that also in previous body of other than a human. It is quite logical and all religions unanimously agree that human is the best creation. To take the birth as human means it is the highest promotion favored by the God. Now, we have to ponder over the fact that what type of good deed we can expect from a tiger or a snake or even an ant so that their next birth might be as a human. In brief to say, no any creation of God in present form has any knowledge what it was in past life and therefore no questions of self-reformation, setting examples to others and satisfying the victims or their relatives arise.

Similarly and also as vice versa, no any creature other than human might have any knowledge of what bad deeds have been done during the human life that it has to take rebirth in lower Yoni (form of being or existence). Thus having no knowledge of previous birth, all the above three points are not obtained or justified by the respective incarnations themselves or others. Some Hindu schools of thought (Brahma Kumaris) believe in ‘as the seed, so the plant or the tree’. Soul of a human can dwell in human body only. Transmigration of souls is not possible from the body of human to the body of non-human and vice versa. In other words to say, the Reincarnation happens from one human body to another only.

Some schools of thought believing in resurrection believe that human is the combination of body, life and soul. The creatures and insects other than human have body and biological life (Jiva or chaitanya) and no any soul. Soul is solely created for human and on this very ground, human differs with non-humans. Non-humans have no concern with right and wrong deeds. What they do is their nature and they have very limited intellect just to survive with food and water and protect themselves from any danger. They have no any Judgment Day or Reward and Punishment. They have no any Hell or Heaven. They have been created for the benefit of human being. They live certain decided life and die when their time comes.

Now in light of my third point above whether there is repetition or duplication of Reward and Punishment in any above mentioned theory. Every religion accepts the final and eternal dwelling of souls either in heaven or hell. There are equivalent words for these heaven and hell as Jannat and Jahannam or Swarga and Narka. According to the religions believing in transmigration of souls, the rewards and punishments are already enjoyed or endured by having re-birth in superior or inferior Yonis. If it is so, there is no any more need of Swarga or Narka for those souls. But, if we accept both these destinations of heaven and hell, then there is duplication or repetition of rewards and punishment and that seems improper and illogical.

Before concluding my Article, I would like to say something from the practical point of view. We agree that moral standards of people have, now-a-days, become very low and all values of humanity have lost their meaning. Now, according to the theory of transmigration of souls, the population of human beings should be decreasing day by day. The people doing bad deeds and committing sins should be reborn not as a human being but as brutes. But we see that human population is increasing more and more. Should we presume that more man becomes immoral, the more are his chances of being reborn a human being?

Summing up, we witness some news reports supporting the belief of re-birth with presentation of some stories where a particular man or woman and sometimes a child tells episodes of one’s own previous life. In some cases, it is reported that such persons speak unknown languages. But such reports are not duly verified and we hear them as rumors or hear-says. We cannot take all such reports as authentic with the only argument that millions of people take birth throughout the world and such cases should happen in numbers, but we see that such reports are rarely published and no any scientific proofs of such happening are collected. The last and final argument regarding the matter in question is that such so called people talk about their previous life as a human. According to the theory of believing in reincarnation, how can a human take re-birth as a human again in the next life without any up-gradation or degradation according to the principle of Karma ?

– Valibhai Musa


 
9 Comments

Posted by on May 19, 2011 in લેખ

 

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9 responses to “(250) Theories of Transmigration of Souls and Resurrection

  1. pragnaju

    May 20, 2011 at 12:52 am

    Being reborn in another body. Several religions, including Hinduism, believe that the human spirit returns to Earth in different forms again and again as it strives for perfection.

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  2. Pancham Shukla

    May 20, 2011 at 10:13 am

    Received by email :-

    Thanks for a different view point.

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  3. Sharad Shah

    May 20, 2011 at 11:14 am

    Dear Valibhai;
    Love.

    I must acknowledge and appreciate your ability to analyze a topic, which has no end of debating. If I would have been a scientist, I would have asked you to donate your brain after your death for my research study.

    Dear Valibhai before we discuss on the subject, I would like to ask you few questions.

    1) Do you think the discussion will clear the picture, whether reincarnation is the truth or resurrection?
    2) Can you define what good Karma (PuNya) is, and what is bad Karma (Pap)? And who will decide about good Karma and bad Karma?
    3) Do you think that eyes with coloured goggles can see the real colours of a tree?
    4) Do you think that a word “Mango” will give you a taste of Mango?
    5) Do you think that blinds can define light?
    6) Do not you see that a programmed mind behaves according to the program only?
    7) Do you really want to know the truth or want to know about the truth?

    I shall appreciate your answers after proper thought on it.

    His Blessings;
    Sharad

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  4. Valibhai Musa

    May 20, 2011 at 1:12 pm

    Dear Sharadbhai,

    To reply your comment, I have three options. (1) Through Comment Box (2) By mail (3) By writing an independent Article. I’ll go as my mood hits. Meanwhile to say, I thank you very much for your acknowledgment and appreciation of my ability. I don’t think so as you believe; and perhaps if it is right, it is the grace of the God, nothing else.

    With warm regards,
    Valibhai

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  5. સુરેશ જાની

    May 20, 2011 at 5:27 pm

    I had cursorily glanced through the article , when I received the email. But had decided not to comment, as my knowledge is very very limited.
    However I can not refuse a repeated request from my dear Vali’da!

    ——————–
    My humble submission is…
    All these are theories. One very obvious purpose of evolving them is…
    Establishment of a hypothesis of reward and punishment in one form or another, with an objective to create fear in the minds of members of society against misdeeds.
    If the objective is served, well and good.Even if majority people respect the hypothesis, it is useful for society.
    It is also observed that majority people DO honor them – even partially.
    This is good from sociological considerations.
    But for a person with reasoning , such a stick/ carrot policy of no use. He / she is driven by his/her own moral values, for his/ her deeds.
    Apart from this, I do not find any use for either of these!!

    The other side of the coin is –
    These theories have created kot of ill will amongst believes/ non believers and many evils/ conflicts have been generated thereof.

    I personally do not subscribe to any of these. I have no need of either.

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  6. Valibhai Musa

    May 20, 2011 at 6:18 pm

    Dear Sharadbhai,

    My answers are as follows:

    (1) Being it a controversial issue, no any discussion can make the picture clear. Besides, reincarnation or resurrection has no any importance whether one or the other is true. They are merely the different methods of Reward and Punishment. Here, the counter question might be thought out whether the theory of Reward and Punishment is true. The Rational people might differ. The prime criterion of both the theories is to motivate people towards goodness and prevent them from evils.

    (2) Definitions of Punya and Paap might vary according to place, time, situation, persons, cultures and many more such factors. In my view, if the behavior of the opposite person makes us happy, it is Punya; and, vice versa. I remember a dialogue of a Hindi Novel ‘Chitralekha’. It is said there as: – “There is no sin or good deed. The man has to do what he is compelled to do. The man is the slave of situations.’ We cannot ignore this dialogue being it literary. Many people of various sects argue in this way. There might be defense mechanism.

    (3) (4) & (5) These types of questions are suggestive questions. Here, the interrogator already knows their answers. You might get the same answers from hundreds of people. You know my answers as (3) No (4) No & (5) No.

    (6) Free minded people might behave differently.

    (7) Everybody might know a truth. Nobody except some rare people can know the truth.

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  7. Valibhai Musa

    May 20, 2011 at 6:38 pm

    Dear Sureshbhai,

    Thanks for honoring my request. Akhilbhai has once more arrived at Palanpur. I am going to meet him at our Hotel Cappal on Saturday evening. My one more surprise to our friends is pending. Latest by end of May-2011, I’ll disclose it.

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  8. Sharad Shah

    May 21, 2011 at 7:41 am

    Dear Valibhai;
    Love;

    1) In reply to my first question, you say, “Being it a controversial issue, no any discussion can make the picture clear. Besides, reincarnation or resurrection has no any importance whether one or the other is true. They are merely the different methods of Reward and Punishment.”

    Here you admit that reincarnation or resurrection is a controversial issue and no discussion can make the picture clear. Secondly you are saying which one is true is not important. Does a wise man should waste his time on discussion which has no fruitful result and no significance?
    Further you say that “it is a different method of Reward and Punishment to motivate people towards goodness and prevent them from evils.” If these theories are effective and working perfectly right, why one should oppose or condemn? There is no point of discussing on the theories which are working perfectly right. After all theories are theories, may be true or may not be true, but the final results are the same and helps the people motivating towards goodness and preventing them from evils.
    Theory of “Reincarnation” is promoted by Hindus, Jainas, Baudhdhas, Shikhs, and many other Asian religions, whereas theory of “Resurrection” is promoted by Jews, Muslims and Kristens or may be few other religion of that territory.
    To my understandings theory of “Resurrection”, which is promoted by Moses, Jesus, Mohammad or any other enlightened master of that time and territory are the most wise and intelligent people mankind have ever produced. They must be aware to whom they are talking to and in which language they should talk to them and accordingly they have proclaimed a theory of “resurrection” considering various factors, place, peoples’ capability and understanding level, time, prevailing mind sets and many others. They can not be wrong in their theory. And we are seeing its results too.
    Same is with a theory of, “Reincarnation”, which is promoted by great asian masters like Krishna, Gautam Baudh, Mahavir, Shankar, Gorakha, Narad, Nanaka, and many more. How they can be wrong? They too have considered several factors before launching a theory of “Reincarnation”.
    As such we are fool and do not look at the results of these theories, but look at the theory it self and go on debating on it since hundreds of years. What do we want to prove? Wiser then all these masters? We do not look at the moon and enjoy its beauty, but we stuck up with the finger, which is stretched towards the moon.
    2) You are saying, “Definitions of Punya and Paap might vary according to place, time, situation, persons, cultures and many more such factors”. Then who and how will be decided, which one is “Punya and which one is “Paap”? Eating mutton is a great Paap according to Jainas, but for Muslims and many others, it is food. Even Mohammad was eating mutton. Do you think God, who will decide reward and punishment is Jain and shall send Mohammad in hell on the day of resurrection? Do you think that God is Muslim and shall punish the people, who do not perform five times Namaz?
    You are also saying “In my view, if the behavior of the opposite person makes us happy, it is Punya; and, vice versa”
    Do not you see that any of our action shall make few people happy and few others unhappy? Even God is failed to make all people happy, how can we make all others happy? Are we superior to The God? We can make happy only our self, no body else. Someone may become happy by our action if he/she desire so. But in the whole process of happiness, our action is less important but the desire of other person is more important. To my understanding, any an act, done with total involvement and awareness is Punya and an act without awareness is Paap.
    Re-evaluate the dialogue of Chitralekha novel in this context and you will have different meaning to it.
    3) I do not discuss these questions (3) (4) and (5) as the answers are obvious and no one can deny the truth.
    6) You are saying, “Free minded people might behave differently.” Yes! I agree to it,they behave differently but they are not different. To my experience most of such free minded people are hypocrates and they pretend to show the others as their mind is free and ready to accept truth. But it is not so. For example:
    Mahatma Gandhi, throughout his life advocated “Allaha Ishwar Tero Naam” But when he is shot by Godse on 30th January, he uttered He Ram He Ram, He Ram three times. He didn’t utter single a time “He Allaha”. I would have appriciated, if he would have uttered “He Allaha” even once. But no. We talk something and act something else. Sanskaara of religion are so deeply rooted, that a man like Gandhi known as Mahatma also exposed at the time of death. All our free mind hypocrisies are like that only. Whether we accept it or not.
    To my understanding the mind which is not conditioned or say programmed can only see the truth, as it is open to accept the truth in whatever the form.
    7) Every body wants to know about the truth, only rare people are willing to know the truth like Krishna or Kabir or Mohammad or Mahavir or Jesus or Jarthushtra.
    I know my views and sayings are not easy to digest. But it may give you new direction to think over.
    His Blessings;
    Sharad

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